Vocabulary List Abbreviations

Accent Markings

Pitch accent markings are placed within the readings of each entry.

Japanese open quote (「) signifies the slight shift up in pitch after the first syllable of a word that isn't accented on the first syllable. It may occur elsewhere in a multi-word phrase. Japanese close quote (」) is placed after the accented syllable. The pitch should fall on the syllables following this mark.

Parts of Speech

[n] 普通名詞
common noun
[n-t] jisoumeishi temporal (time) noun
[n-adv] fukushitekimeishi adverbial noun
[pn] pronoun (or noun used as such)
[prt] 助詞
particle, postposition
[adv] 副詞
[adv-ni] Forms an adverbial phrase when followed by particle "ni"
[adj] 形容詞
true adjective, i-adjective
[adj-na] / [an] 形容動詞
adjectival noun, quasi-adjective, na-adjective
[adj-no] / [a-no] forms an adjectival meaning with particle "no"
[d-adj] 連体詞
demonstrative adjective, pre-noun adjectival
[v1] 一段動詞
1-step (type II) verb, ichidan verb
[v5] 五段動詞
5-step (type I) verb, godan verb;
letter marks ending syllable: s = su, k = ku, g = gu, etc.
Used in [v1] and [v5] verb entries:
* marks a godan which has some irregularities in conjugation, e.g. irregularly conjugating honorific verbs
-i 自動詞
intransitive verb (no direct obj)
-t 他動詞
transitive verb (direct obj)
[v*] 不規則動詞
irregular verb
[vs] forms a verb when directly followed by "suru"
[vs-wo] forms a verb phrase as direct object of "wo suru".
[vs-s] Marks a special case of suru conjugation in which certain tenses are conjugated as if the verb were a godan ending in "su" (i.e. as if the "ru" on "suru" were removed).
[aux] auxiliary
[aux-v] 助動詞
auxiliary verb, subsidiary verb
[ttl] title
[ij] 感動詞
[conj] conjunction
[ques] question word
[pref] prefix
[n-pref] prefix which affixes to nouns
[suf] suffix
[n-suf] suffix which affixes to nouns
[v-suf] suffix which affixes to verbs
[onomot] onomotopoeic word
[phr] phrase
[exp] expression (usually idiomatic)
[?] not certain of part of speech

Other Markings

(masc) 男性語
masculine language
(fem) 女性語
feminine language
(o-) Usually or commonly prefixed with polite prefix "o".
(fam) familiar language (i.e. used with family and intimate friends)
(-san) Usually or commonly suffixed with "san", "sama", etc.
(vulg) vulgar
(X) rude or X-rated term
(col) colloquialism
(hon) 尊敬語
honorific language
(hum) 謙譲語
humble language
(id) idiomatic
(pol) 丁寧語
polite language
(gikun) 義訓
A kanji compound read by meaning rather than actual kanji readings.
(ateji) 当て字
A kanji compound composed of characters chosen for phonetic equivalence.