||お + [い-stem] & に なる
o + [i-stem] & ni naru
||お + [い-stem] & なさる
o + [i-stem] & nasaru
* Note different verb "nakunaru" (亡くなる) used in place of "shinu".
kaeru (to change)
okae ni naru
hanasu (to speak)
ohanashi ni naru
aruku (to walk)
oaruki ni naru
oyogu (to swim)
ooyogi ni naru
yobu (to call)
oyobi ni naru
nomu (to drink)
onomi ni naru
shinu (to die)
onakunari ni naru*
tsukuru (to make)
otsukuri ni naru
matsu (to wait)
omachi ni naru
arau (to wash)
oarai ni naru
(to be, to stay)
goran ni naru
gozonji de irassharu
(to be, to exist)
* This is not actually honorific, since
it applies only to inanimate things, however, it is often used in situations in which
honorific forms are called for.
Usage Notes & Examples:
- The above represents common patterns for how verbs
are made honorific, but the fact is that keigo is extremely
complex. There are many exceptions governing how particular verbs
are made honorific, depending on what forms have survived to
modern times, as well as particular ways of expressing
certain sentiments. For instance, notice that "taberu" could
not be used as a model verb here (see below) and that a
different verb entirely is used in place of "shinu".
It would be advisable to check a reliable source for any
- Honorific forms are used only when a person other than
the speaker (or a member of the speaker's group) is the subject.
The subject of an honorific, in general, must be a person.
This can be the listener or a third party. It elevates the
position of the subject to show politeness to that person.
This is a separate function from that provided by the "normal polite"
forms ("desu", "masu"), which show politeness to the listener
regardless of the subject. So for instance, if you're talking to
an employee of a client company, you may speak of that
company's president honorifically, but you still need the "masu"
forms to show politeness to the employee you're speaking to.
This remains true even if the subject of the honorific and the
listener are the same person.
- Note that some verbs have inherently polite
or honorific counterparts that are used in their place when an
honorific is called for, and the most common examples are listed
in the irregulars table above.
- For verbs that conjugate as noun + "suru", where the noun
involved is of Chinese origin (i.e. the "on" reading of
the kanji is used), generally the noun is prefixed
with "go-" (sometimes o-) and "suru" becomes "nasaru".