Japanese Language and Culture

Causative

Production Rules:

Rule Meaning
Infinitive (Plain Nonpast Indicative) Ichidan: [root] + させる
[root] + saseru
Godan: [あ-stem] + せる
[a-stem] + seru
X makes/will make (someone) [do]
X lets/will let (someone) [do]

Inflection Examples:

Infinitive (Plain Nonpast Indicative)
食べる
taberu (to eat)
食べさせる
tabesaseru
話す
hanasu (to speak)
話させる
hanasaseru
歩く
aruku (to walk)
歩かせる
arukaseru
泳ぐ
oyogu (to swim)
泳がせる
oyogaseru
呼ぶ
yobu (to call)
呼ばせる
yobaseru
飲む
nomu (to drink)
飲ませる
nomaseru
死ぬ
shinu (to die)
死なせる
shinaseru
作る
tsukuru (to make)
作らせる
tsukuraseru
待つ
matsu (to wait)
待たせる
mataseru
洗う
arau (to wash)
あらわせる
arawaseru

Irregulars:

Infinitive (Plain Nonpast Indicative)
する
suru
(to do)
させる
saseru
くる
kuru
(to come)
来させる
kosaseru

Usage Notes & Examples:

  1. Conjugating to the causative form results in the creation of a new ichidan verb (even if the starting verb was godan). This resulting verb can be conjugated to give negatives, past tenses, presumptives, provisionals, polite forms, etc., just as any other ichidan verb. Of course, you must be careful, as there are conjugations that wouldn't make logical sense for a verb in the causative form.

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